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Description of How to Play Slots Online

Description of How to Play Slots Online – In starting to play online slot gambling games of course you must first know about how to play this gambling game.

The first slot machine called “Liberty Bell” was invented by Charles Fay. He created this in his workshop in San Francisco in 1887. This slot machine is slightly smaller than it is today. This Liberty Bell slot machine had 3 reels and 20 symbols and operated the same as today’s pragmatic slot machines. In a relatively short time, Fay’s creations became popular and successful.
The “Operator Bell” slot machine which is similar in design to the “Liberty Bell” was invented in 1907, by Herbert Mills. He’s a Chicago manufacturer. These slot machines have experienced greater success. In 1910 slot machines became very common throughout the US.
Description of How to Play Slots Online

What is a slot machine?

A slot machine is a mechanical device that has a varying number of circular reels with different dimensions. This scroll has various symbols on it either painted on or attached to it. There can be any symbol but the most common designs are the cherry, bar or jackpot number 7 symbol. The symbols on the machine make no difference on how the machine will play or what and how much it pays out.

How to play the game?

The game starts when the player inserts a number of coins or game tokens into the coin slot on the front of the slot machine. Then the player pulls the handle mounted on the right side of the machine that regulates the spinning reel. The scrolls stop sequentially from left to right on the screen. The main goal is to arrange the matching symbols on the pay line. A schedule of winning combinations in front of or just above the machine, showing a hierarchy of winning combinations and the amount paid each time they appear in the active paylines.
Some modern machines have buttons instead of handles. This button is marked as a “spin” which the player presses to start spinning the reels. Some modern machines have a button marked as “credit”. If the player presses this button before inserting coins, instead of paying the winner with coins, the machine will automatically credit the winnings to the credit meter. The credited wins appear numerically on the machine’s credit meter display, and, as an option, the player then has the option of playing these credits, or cashing them out. If the player wants to play credits, the player can press the button marked “play one credit”. Each time this button is pressed, the machine will deduct one credit from the credit meter and schedule one matching coin as an “incoming coin”. Players can press this “play one credit” button up to the machine’s maximum coin limit.
For example, if the machine where the player is playing takes a maximum of 5 coins, then the player can press this “play one coin” button 5 times. These coins are deducted from the player’s credit meter and then credited to the next player’s withdrawal. The machine will usually say “coins received” on the screen, when this is done or the screen will light up in some cases. The result is the same as if the player puts five coins into the slot instead of using the credits he has accumulated. Most modern machines also have one more button called “play coins maximum”, sometimes also referred to as “play five coins” if the machine is a maximum of five coins, or “play four coins” if the machine is a maximum of four, and so on. By pressing this button, the player will automatically play the maximum coins that the machine takes. Players can also withdraw these credits by pressing the button marked “collect”. By pressing this button, the machine will pay out coins, or game tokens, all the credits shown on the credit meter. These coins then fall onto a plate mounted on the bottom of the machine.

A Better Way to Play Online Poker

A Better Way to Play Online Poker – In playing online poker gambling games, of course, there are various best ways to play online poker gambling games.

No, it’s not about reading your palm to predict the future. This is about a list of asia poker77 gambling agents reading your opponents and the strength of their hole cards.
Hand reading is about narrowing the reach of the hand your opponent may be holding against you. If you can improve your hand reading skills, you will become a better poker player.
A Better Way to Play Online Poker
And not just for obvious reasons – if he has better hands than mine, I fold. If not, I will.

Why Hand Reading Is So Important

If you’ve ever watched Daniel Negreanu on TV, you’ll have noticed that he’s always thinking about what cards his opponent is holding. Now, this is very important! He didn’t just do that to compare the strength of his hand against his opponent. He did so because in failure he played his opponent’s hand.
Daniel won more than his fair share of the tournament because on the failure he thought of his opponent’s cards. And if he has a good idea of ​​what his opponent is holding, he can use the community cards to take the pot.

As an example:

If his opponent raises under the gun with a standard big blind increase of 3x, and the player is tight, Daniel will think “big hand”. Daniel is on the button with 5-4 matches. He looked at his opponent and saw he had a big pile. Daniel wants to win the pile. He’s not calling because he has a better hand. He called because of implied opportunity.
Now, the flop comes 7-9-10 with 2 cards that match, but not of Daniel’s suit. The opponent bets 3/4 of the pot. What should Daniel do?
Daniel has nothing but air. He considers his opponent to have a large pocket pair or AK. But he called!


He calls the bet because if the flush card, a 6,8 or J hits the turn, he can take away the pot with the right sized bet on the turn. Especially if his opponent is weak, tight. He will actually win this pot with 5 high!
Oh yeah, sometimes Daniel drops his matched connector and wins with the best hand.

Hand Reading Exercise

The aim of this practice is to become a better poker player. If you’ve never won or reached the final table on MTT, now is the time to step outside your comfort zone.
Note: You will lose your money in some of these exercises, so choose a lower limit. However, don’t let the blind level get so low that no one ever folds to a raise before failing.
1. Play the game of low blind poker, limit cash and raise each hand before the flop.
This will put you in a sticky situation with every hand you play. Everyone at the table will play against you. And you have to be the best to win any hand.
2. Watch a no-limit or no-limit poker table for an hour and read the hand.
What hands do these players have in this hand? What stakes do they say? Try this exercise while watching online poker.
3. Mapping players.
Have you written notes about players. Start taking notes. Which opponent is tight, aggressive, loose, weak. How do they play their hands on the flop, turn and river? How often do they bully. You can try it online.

Prohibitions in Playing Online Football Gambling

Prohibitions in Playing Online Football Gambling – After going through several stages of the filtering process, finally we were able to perfect the articles we had collected with data from reliable sources regarding the prohibition of playing online soccer gambling games.

Wrong in playing online gambling is a thing that is very, very avoided by all bettors. because if they make a mistake, of course, it is certain that every bettor will have a wrong move that causes them to experience defeat which might also go bankrupt. for this reason, before you start playing online gambling, you must understand very well about the things that are in online agen bola88 gambling games. understand correctly so you can get maximum gambling results. Most people are always looking for ways to win big when playing online gambling. even though that’s not all, the causes of bankruptcy or errors in playing online gambling must also be understood so that you can play online gambling properly and correctly.
Prohibitions in Playing Online Football Gambling
There are many mistakes that are often made by many bettors that result in them losing and going bankrupt when playing online gambling. and the ones who make these mistakes most often are novice bettors. Which is a beginner bettor who does not really understand online gambling games. so that they unconsciously make mistakes that make them lose a lot of their betting capital. But you should also know that it is not only beginners who have the potential to make mistakes that result in bankruptcy. Because in general, reliable players can also make mistakes that have fatal consequences.

Play to your heart’s content

The mistake most often made by bettors who play online gambling is playing to their heart’s content. Sometimes they have never played gambling, just see how to play it. So that when playing real online gambling, they play the game according to what they see regardless of whether the rules are correct or not? Here you must avoid this.

Easily Ignited Emotions

You have to understand that if you are triggered by emotions, of course, each bettor will not have a stable concentration so that the consequences are very, very fatal. This error can make you go bankrupt.

Place Large Bets

Maybe you have heard of a trick that states that placing a large bet will certainly make a big profit. but of course there are tricks, unfortunately, many do not understand so they make the mistake of placing large bets at once. of course this can lead to bankruptcy if you don’t know the right gap in placing large bets.

Various Strategies for Playing Slot Gambling

Various Strategies for Playing Slot Gambling – Knowing the strategy in playing online slot gambling games is of course very important for you to know, this strategy can help you to win this gambling game faster.

This is one of the obvious reasons why online slot gambling games are extraordinary games, because apart from the many things that you already understand and understand about online slot gambling games, there is one thing that exists and until now it is also very clear. Even skilled players will not be able to be sure if they can take advantage of the existing online slot gambling games, where this game only makes people have to think hard about what combination will come out, because this whole game depends on the spin rounds that are coming out. Yes, if the spin that will come out is the right choice, then you will be entitled to something big and this is the excitement in this online slot gambling game joker123. This is also one of the reasons why so many real gambling players compete with each other to write about online slot gambling games. Not only because of the existing strategy, but at least it will be able to help other players to compete for profits in this gambling game. Indeed, the basis is a tip that may not be able to help you win at all, but this will make the game you are doing better than what you have previously done. The various ways that exist quite often are things that we cannot immediately avoid by a gambling player who has often made mistakes after mistakes in the mace gambling game. In some ways the online slot gambling game will be able to provide indirect shows to provide a period of time spent playing online slot gambling games. You will be able to do this by playing a lower online slot gambling game or by changing the style of play that you are currently doing, the goal is to see the abilities you have in this online sot gambling game.
Various Strategies for Playing Slot Gambling
One of the most reliable strategies to date is that you are always smarter at placing your existing bet money. It is like making existing bets with the maximum amount such as several coin bets that will provide existing advantages, never just place a coin bet in this online slot gambling game. Maybe you can win, but it won’t always be like that and you will still experience big losses in this online slot gambling game. You need to remember that online slot gambling in Indonesia is not just one coin gambling. Instead they will try to put in some amount of coins to play this online slot gambling game. In this place, each coin is then entered for different purposes from the others, such as adding a number of lines or by multiplying the amount that will be paid when we win, then it makes more sense if the coins create lots of chances. to be able to win in this online slot gambling game. But keep in mind that a number of these bets need to be calculated very carefully, not to throw away the existing coins for nothing, so that we will experience substantial losses if we play like that.
When you are trying to spend the same number of things in placing the maximum number of bets, you will definitely have an advantage in placing smaller amounts of bets. Besides that, playing with maximum coins will also be able to make a player able to meet the requirements in getting a jackpot which is a big prize that you will be able to get if you find the right combination in an ongoing round. Of course, if you accept this, you can say that you will immediately become a millionaire in the online gambling game. Indeed, in this online slot gambling game there are players who lose and there are also those who win, indeed there are also players who often get defeats from the start of the game so they come out from the beginning. The same thing will continue to happen like this in online slot gambling games, to be able to know when to stop in this gambling game is indeed very important in gaining big profits. If you look at the existing data, all existing online gambling sites will always try to stop players who have won huge wins in existing gambling games, but this does not apply to sbobet gambling sites that will always help a player gain profits in gambling games. online slots. Of course, the income that there is an online gambling site is not too strict, they will be calculated based on certain things to be able to continue to run their business. Stop playing online gambling games while making a profit is an art that must be done. This requires great skill and also the right mind. A player who is smart in managing his finances will always understand and understand that an existing gambling site is very rare in making even large losses and wins, so they will have various ways, so players must stop at the right time if they don’t want to. experience a big loss or loss in this game, the right time for you to stop is that at least you have won 1 to 2 times the amount of capital you spent, or if you are lucky in this gambling game then you must stop when you have succeeded get the jackpot in the existing round. This is the right time for you to stop playing first and enjoy your winnings in online slot gambling games along with sbobet gambling sites, of course.

Make Profits Playing Soccer Gambling

Make Profits Playing Soccer Gambling – Next, we will provide reliable articles that we have summarized and made as light as possible, so that they can be read by all groups, here is about how to generate profits from playing online soccer gambling.

is one of the online soccer betting places provided for all of you. Betting is a game in which there is a money bet. Money is one of the ingredients for betting in determining who will be the winner of the game. When deciding to play betting, of course, you can choose what type of game you want. Currently, betting games are offered with a very wide variety of games. However, even though there are many types of betting games, if you don’t know how to play, you certainly won’t be able to play optimally.
Currently the Sbobet88 agent is one of the game choices that you can try your luck with. Trying to play the online Sbobet agent, of course you should know the Tips for Playing at the Online Sbobet Agent. Not only to make it easier for you, here is how to play Sbobet betting that you can find out to make it easier for you to play and be able to win the game.
Make Profits Playing Soccer Gambling

Sbobet Game Betting Tips To Make Money

Choose a game that you are good at

Each Sbobet betting player must master a game. To place bets, Sbobet can also make or choose according to the game you are good at. There must be consideration in it before you place a bet on one market.

Finding Out Complete Information

To be able to win in Online Football Agent, of course there must be a way to do it for you to reach that point. The easiest and most common way for players to win Sbobet soccer betting is to follow complete information about the game you like. Estimating the market will really help you in placing bets on the betting table.

Place Bets Using the Sbobet Market Betting

Placing bets on sportsbook betting is not one thing that can be done just like that. It would be better if you place bets on the types of games that are really the best. This means that here you can choose in the best type of soccer sportsbook game with big matches. In the big leagues there are usually more enthusiasts, not only having a more secure market, usually more predictions in determining this market are provided so that it will be easier for players to choose the best team from a popular match.
So to be a winner in the game, you must first understand how to play and find out complete information about the game you are going to play. In order to make it easier for you to win the online betting game, you must play frequently and try to place the online betting bet.
Becoming a winner in this online betting game is not something as easy as turning your hand. It takes a lot of tips to play at a Sbobet agent and experience in playing so that you have a big chance of winning when playing this online betting game. Experience is one of the keys to success that is much needed in playing online betting betting.
The First Airline to Open an Airplane-Themed Restaurant

The First Airline to Open an Airplane-Themed Restaurant

The First Airline to Open an Airplane-Themed Restaurant – Maybe you’ve read a similar or similar article, but this article is different because we have taken it from trusted sources, this is the first airline to open a restaurant with an airplane theme.Which of you has ever tried a meal on a plane? Yes, if you take a long-haul flight, of course you will get a special dining menu for passengers. Even though it looks tempting, unfortunately the food eaten on board usually tastes less appetizing, even tastes bland.

But if you want to get a similar sensation with a much more tantalizing, calm taste, now there are several restaurants and dining places with airplane themes. The restaurant is transformed into a cabin, complete with tables and airplane windows. Want to know anywhere? Check out the following reviews.

Airplane food menus don’t actually have the best reputation among other types of food. However, one of these airlines is desperate to open a pop-up restaurant with airplane themes, complete with their food menu.

The airline in question is Thai Airways. The airline has deliberately launched a new dining venue where the menu is the same as the menu served during its flights, with around 2,000 meals served to visitors every day.

The restaurant was built in the canteen of the airline’s headquarters in Bangkok and became an airplane-themed restaurant, complete with its interior. The restaurant seats use airplane seats, as well as other interiors, taken from old airplane parts.

Also Read:History of the Oldest Restaurant in the World

There is seating for lunch and dinner, while in the morning visitors can enjoy tea, coffee and a selection of baked goods. The restaurant’s pop-up popularity has prompted the brand to open branches at several of its other offices in the city later this month.

The move was taken because the Corona virus pandemic commercial flights to Thailand were stopped. So the idea is to
This isn’t the first time an airline has opened a restaurant serving airplane food. Last year, AirAsia opened a fast food restaurant serving the same dishes as those on its in-flight menus.

The company explained the decision was taken after they saw that demand for their in-flight menu was quite high above the number of requests for their own flights.

History of the Oldest Restaurant in the World

History of the Oldest Restaurant in the World

History of the Oldest Restaurant in the World – For those of you who often go out to eat to restaurants, have you ever thought about where the first restaurant in the world came from and how its history is, for those of you who are curious about this. This article provides a history of the history of the oldest restaurant in the world.
In recent years, food entrepreneurs prefer to open places to eat called grill, bar, diner, cervetaria, bodega, tavern, cafe, bistro, pub. So, the 250th anniversary of the word ‘restaurant’ in 2015 is of particular importance. This story has been repeated so many times, but no one is really sure where the word restaurant came from.
So, the 250th anniversary of the word ‘restaurant’ in 2015 is of particular importance. This story has been repeated so many times, but no one is really sure the origin of the word restaurant. Once upon a time, in 1765, a man from Paris called Monsieur Boulanger came up with the word ‘restaurant’ which literally means restoratives or nutritious soup, as reported by the Independent page.

Fifteen years ago, a historian named Rebecca Spang denounced the story, calling it fiction. He did not discover if the Boulanger actually existed. Still, many other candidates claim to be the father of the first restaurant birth.

Spang has its own version. According to him, it was Roze de Chantoiseau who first started the restaurant business, according to a historical archive, on rue Saint-Honore in 1773.

I personally rely on information from Jean Brillat-Savarin, whose brilliant book Physiologie du Gout (1825) is still the reference for all things related to food philosophy.

Also Read :The Best Served Restaurant In America

Brillat-Savarin said that Monsieur Beauvilliers’ restaurant was located on rue de Richelieu in 1782, and was named La Grande Taverne de Londres.

“As late as 1770,” Brillat-Savarin continued, “Beauvillier had clever recipes, a wine selection, elegant surroundings, and food that could be relied on.”

This is the first time a third party has provided a total design and service experience to consumers. In 1789 the Revolution broke out in Paris, with restaurateurs beheaded.

Due to the history of this restaurant in any era reveals the busy play of creating contemporary dishes. The word ‘taste’ is linked between mouth sensation and culture.

On Brillat-Savarin day, the popular Paris restaurant Les Freres Provencaux offers 12 soups, 24 hors d’oeuvres snacks, 110 appetizers, 24 fish, 12 types of patries, 15 types of bread, 50 side dishes and 50 desserts. An aesthetic formality accompanies the dish.

The Best Served Restaurant In America


The Best Served Restaurant In America – The Best Served Restaurant In America- Americans spend nearly half their family food budget on dining out. Total restaurant sales are projected to reach $863 billion this year, a year-over-year increase of 3%, at the more than 1 million U.S. restaurants, employing about 10% of the total U.S. workforce. Just over half (51%) of Americans’ outlays on food occurs in restaurants.

Restaurant spending in 2019 is forecast to be about 3% higher than in 2018, though customer satisfaction with dining out has dipped, according to the latest report on the restaurant industry from the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). On a scale of 1 to 100, overall U.S. customer satisfaction with restaurants slipped from 79.5 to 78.9 year over year.

Foot traffic to restaurants is falling, according to ACSI, and restaurants are raising prices to offset the drop caused by the increasing availability of prepared food for sale in grocery and convenience stores. In such an environment, remaining profitable means providing outstanding service to the customers who do come through the door. According to a separate survey, in more bad news for restaurants, customers don’t want to eat there anymore.

Millennials continue to drive both food preferences and technological innovation. Plant-based burgers, fresh foods, local sourcing and ethnic food are all high on the list of what restaurant goers are looking for. Mobile apps that offer delivery service, along with dedicated pick-up or drive-thru areas, are just some examples of tech innovations that consumers like.

The researchers looked at two restaurant groupings: full-service restaurants and limited-service stores. Familiar names in the full-service group are Texas Roadhouse, Outback Steakhouse and Olive Garden. In the limited-service group are such stalwarts as McDonald’s, Pizza Hut and Starbucks.

The overall index score for limited-service restaurants fell by a point year over year to 79. This fast-food segment is stumbling according to ACSI: “Overall, the fast food customer experience shows some deterioration as major operators focus on technology and menu upgrades to meet changing consumer preferences. Fast food customers tend to be more price sensitive as well, and the industry sees a weakening of guest perceptions of value.”

Among the fast-food restaurants, Chick-fil-A remained the top performer with a score of 86, one point lower than a year ago. Panera Bread posted an index score of 81, unchanged year over year, to rank second, and four chains ranked third with scores of 80: Arby’s, Chipotle Mexican Grill, Papa John’s and Pizza Hut. Of the 18 fast-food chains included in this year’s survey, McDonald’s posted the lowest rating (69), unchanged from its 2018 score, which was also the lowest among all fast-food operators.

In the full-service group, the average index score was 81, unchanged year over year, and only two restaurant chains, Texas Roadhouse (83) and Cracker Barrel (82), topped that average. The other 12 chains in the group posted customer satisfaction index scores from 81 (Longhorn Steakhouse) to 77 (Applebee’s and Denny’s).

ACSI noted, “[Our] data show that for the full-service [restaurant] segment, diners who order food for delivery are far more satisfied (83) than those who dine in (79). As such, catering and delivery spaces are likely to become even more competitive.”

Only Cracker Barrel posted a higher score year over year, and that by just a single point. Four chains fell by a point (Olive Garden, Red Lobster, TGI Fridays and Applebee’s) year over year. The remaining eight chains posted identical scores in both the 2018 and 2019 reviews.

While the ratings for both full-service and fast-food restaurants may seem low, David VanAmburg, managing director at the ACSI, commented: “These are mature industries that have been doing what they’re doing for a long time and they’ve been successful. To have these scores from a service industry is proof that the two restaurant categories are good at what they do.” Some, however, are still doing better than others

Since 1991 the price of this restaurant has risen very fast


Since 1991 the price of this restaurant has risen very fast –  Menu prices in Canada rose 4.2 per cent last year, the largest one-year increase since the introduction of the goods and services tax (GST) in 1991.

Rising labour costs driven by minimum-wage increases and a shortage of workers were the main drivers of menu-price inflation, according to Restaurants Canada’s 2019 Food Service Facts published last week. But a reliably solid demand for ready-to-eat meals is arguably what allows restaurateurs to pass on those extra costs to consumers.

Despite the steeper prices, annual sales grew by more than five per cent in 2018, the fifth consecutive year of growth exceeding five per cent. The industry is now approaching $90 billion in annual sales, up a whopping $4.3 billion since 2017.

Per capita spending at restaurants barely budged in 2018 — a year that saw cooling home prices and a volatile stock market. On a household basis, spending at restaurants has increased by more than $670 between 2010 and 2017, the most recent year for which data is available. The average household grocery bill, meanwhile, has increased by just over $200 over the same period.

But how are Canadians able to afford all that dining out and ordering in?

Often, they aren’t, according to Shannon Lee Simmons, a Toronto financial planner and author of Living Debt-Free. Food has become a major budget buster for many, she said.

Lee Simmons attributes the extra spending to three main factors. The first one is food delivery apps, which make paying for restaurant meals so easy that one barely even notices.

“It’s so easy to order food nowadays and you don’t even have to think about it or even swipe your card anymore,” she told Global News via email.

Delivery restaurants’ sales have grown by an eye-popping 44 per cent over 2017, according to Restaurants Canada’s report.

And Canadians also have so much more choice, when it comes to food delivery, compared to 10 years ago, Lee Simmons said.

But the other main reason why people are increasingly outsourcing food preparation is busy schedules, she added.

“Apps, prepared foods and delivery services are in such high demand because people feel they don’t have time to meal plan and cook,” she said.

This seems to be the case for the crowd aged 40-ish and under. Over 70 per cent of adults born between 1977 and 2000 reported eating a restaurant meal at least once a week — and saving time was the main reason why, Restaurants Canada reported based on research from Techonomic.

How to not blow your budget on restaurant food
If restaurant food is eating up far too much of your budget, Lee Simmons has two simple tips.

The first is to make it a little more inconvenient to use food delivery. Take food delivery apps off your phone and remove your credit card information from the sites that let you order in, she said. Just a little bit of extra friction can make a difference.

Second, if you have a packed schedule but want to cook more, you’re going to need a plan, she said.

The problem with meal planning though is that the internet is full of complicated, over-the-top advice that leads many to throw in the towel — or napkin — before even starting.

The key to meal planning on a crammed schedule is to keep it realistic, said Kate Etue, editor at Cool Mom Eats.

Etue, who has four children, advises sticking to simple meals that use a limited number of familiar ingredients. She also recommends using recipes as “inspiration” rather than something to be followed to the letter.

If your dish calls for a sprinkle of $8-a-bottle saffron, you can probably skip that, she said. Spices, after all, tend to be a major inflator of people’s grocery bills, she noted.

Cooking more than you need and eating leftovers is also a clear time-saver, but that doesn’t necessarily mean you have to eat the same meal twice in a row.

“One day, it can be BBQ in the crockpot, the next night, you turn leftovers into tacos,” she said.

Etue said she usually plans for a week’s worth of meals on Monday — her quiet day — though she usually allows for one meal away from home. As she writes down the family’s menu, she also makes her grocery list. She then puts the meal plan on the fridge, so everyone knows what to expect.

Lee Simmons advises meal-plan beginners to start small.

“Try to cook two meals a week that will also provide leftovers for lunch the next day. That’s it,” she said. “Once this becomes habit, add in a third night and so on.”

Chef Made Burger For 30 Minutes


Chef Made Burger For 30 Minutes – Here is a distinct lack of chopping, smoke, sweating or swearing in the kitchen at Creator, a new burger restaurant in San Francisco. Instead, there is faint whirring and, if you really listen, the muffled sound of grinding and distant sizzling. It’s because the chefs here are not human.

Creator instead uses two family car-sized robots that can each churn out 120 burgers an hour. They do everything from grinding the meat and shaping the burgers to slicing tomatoes, grating cheese and dispensing mustard. Each burger can be customised with different sauces, cheeses and toppings, while an array of sensors monitor the beef as it’s precision grilled.

The robots themselves are controlled by a machine learning algorithm that uses the information from 11 thermal sensors in the cooking compartment to help ensure each patty of meat is cooked just as the customer ordered it.

The burger robot has some 350 sensors, 50 actuators and 20 computers, according to Alex Vardakostas, the engineer behind Creator. Every aspect, from the ‘topping modules’ that measure out the condiments and garnishes to the vibrating blade that slice the buns cleanly, is designed for precision.

Creator is one of a small but growing number of restaurants turning to robotics and artificial intelligence to create a new experience for consumers. While the combination of robots and cooking might conjure the prospect of tasteless mass-produced meals, these machines are actually making food to order.

Precision cooking

At Creator, a tablet-based ordering system gives options for how well-done the burger should be, as well as selecting cheese, sauce and toppings. A range of exotic options include charred onion jam, two types of salt, and Pacific fusion sauce with umeboshi plum and mole (a Mexican sauce made with chilli and chocolate). The menu certainly takes a ‘foodie’ approach rather than offering production-line burgers, but the burgers are priced for the mass market, at around $6 each. This is supposedly made possible by saving on labour costs.
Robotics enable us to do things the best way rather than the way they’ve always been done, optimizing beyond the constraints of by-hand operations,” says Vardakostas. “We use machine learning to improve the robot’s culinary precision on things like cooking beef more precisely than a line cook does.

And their approach appears to have been well received. Reviewers have raved about the fresh, full-flavour of the burgers and “consistent” quality, although some have bemoaned a lack of juiciness.

The other benefit is the speed. Fast food is getting faster.

Buns trundle along a glass-walled conveyor belt where sauces are squirted onto the bread, then tomatoes, onion and lettuce are freshly sliced on top.

Buns are sliced open and then trundle along a glass-walled conveyor belt where sauces are squirted onto the bread, then tomatoes, onion and lettuce are freshly sliced on top. At the far end, the meat is ground, shaped and grilled on both sides at once using induction plates in a miniature cooking enclosure.

It takes five minutes end to end, but as the robot can cook multiple burgers at once, a fresh meal can appear every 30 seconds when it is running at full speed.

Repeatable recipes

On the opposite side of the country, a new restaurant in Boston, Massachusetts is also using robots to do all the cooking. Spyce specialises in grain bowls, dishes which are quick-fried in a wok and served over rice, couscous or other cereals.

Ordering is done via a display screen and as with Creator, the robotics are part of the show: a row of inductively-heated woks is positioned under a conveyor belt which automatically delivers ingredients to each bowl for rapid cooking before toppings are added by a human chef.

The entire process is completed in just three minutes. Again, the emphasis is on quality food at affordable prices, enabled by the speed and personalisation provided by machines.

But some are using robots in an attempt to resurrect interest in traditional cuisine. In China, entrepreneur Li Zhiming found few restaurants serve traditional Hunanese food, even in his home province of Hunan. Dishes like stir-fried cumin beef call for many fresh ingredients and a complex cooking process, and good chefs are hard to find.

Li instead spent several years developing robots that could produce dishes using precise, repeatable recipes. Robotic hoppers dispense precisely-measured ingredients into a wok in sequence as they are stirred over a gas flame for precise lengths of time.

Li says instead of the usual staff of eight, his kitchen has three robots and two human ‘helpers’. He claims it will allow him to deliver Hunanese food to the same quality anywhere in the world.

Fast and fresh

Robot restaurants have novelty value, and watching a machine make your meal is part of the appeal. But Zume Pizza in California are working on the strictly practical application of robotics to fast food. Zume bakes pizza in vans en route to the customer, for the fastest, freshest pizza delivery possible. The company has steadily automated their pizza creation process with the addition of robot ‘co-workers’.

Zume’s doughbot stretches pizza dough in nine seconds, rather than the usual forty-five
Zume’s ‘doughbot’ stretches pizza dough in nine seconds, rather than the usual forty-five, robots ‘Pepe’ and ‘Giorgio’ dispense sauces, ‘Marta’ spreads the sauce and robot arms ‘Bruno’ and ‘Vincenzo’ move pizzas in and out of the oven. Machine vision algorithms, combined with temperature sensors help to ensure the pizza is cooked perfectly. Using machine learning to analyse ordering data, they are also able to forecast how many ingredients they need to carry in the delivery van each night, while other algorithms coordinate the cooking time with the delivery route.

In April, Zume announced plans to license their technology. If their business model works, then pizzas made by robots may become very much more widespread. Meanwhile its rival Little Caesar, one of America’s biggest pizza chains, recently patented their own pizza-making robot.

But this new wave of automation could also signal a seismic shift in the way the fast-food industry employs people.

“It makes sense to automate non-value adding jobs to enable staff to focus on providing great customer service,” says Steve Newton, an expert on the fast-food sector at payment processing firm Worldpay. A recent Worldpay survey found that only 6% of UK customers were satisfied with the pace and efficiency of service while 58% would prefer a self-service kiosk if it speeded up service.

That does not necessarily mean fewer staff, but having more of them in roles where they can directly help customers, so there is always someone there when you need them.

“Successful business will not be cutting staff where it is to the detriment of customer service,” says Newton.

Some chains are already introducing touch-screen ordering, which can provide faster service as well as cutting staffing requirements. Robotic kitchens could have a similar impact on the efficiency and number of people needed in restaurant kitchens. An estimated 3.8 million people work in fast-food outlets in the US, the majority in repetitive, unskilled tasks which could potentially be automated.

A human touch

Richard Skellett is a technology entrepreneur and founder of Digital Anthropology, a social enterprise business that campaigns for technology to work for people rather than replace them. Skellett is sceptical of claims that robots in restaurants can create as many jobs as they displace.

“Just what are the jobs they are creating?” Skellett asks. “And do they exist in the same number as the jobs the automation is replacing?

“Technology should augment people, not replace them, AI and bots should free up people to add value to an enterprise.”

Companies like Zume claim that this is what they are doing.

“Our goal is to have automation handle repetitive, dangerous and boring tasks so our employees can focus on work that’s more human,” says a spokesperson for Zume. She stresses that people will always be a key part of their business. “For example, a robot can’t tell you if a pizza actually tastes good.”

Zume have also garnered plenty of good reviews for their pizza.

Newton points out that customers value speed, convenience and personalisation. This is already driving consumers to use table-booking apps on their phones, touchscreen ordering and paying online, and it is likely to favour increasingly automated kitchens too. But it may also mean more staff out front to improve service – especially for customers who prefer to deal with people rather than machines.

Vardakostas also argues that freeing up staff from the kitchen allows them to focus on customer service. “The goal is not to be the most automated restaurant,” he said. “It’s to be the most human-centered restaurant.”

But robotic cooks are not just limited to the kitchens of quirky fast-food restaurants. British company Moley Robotics plans to put robotic chefs in domestic kitchens too. Moley’s design features a pair of mechanical arms with eerily human-like robot hands, created by Shadow Robot Company, which specialises in humanoid robots.

By recording the actions of a human chef using a sophisticated motion-capture system, they can teach the machine to recreate their creations. The robots can perform dexterous tasks like whisking eggs, slicing onions or frying bacon. Moley claims to have a library of hundreds of different meals that owners can download, but the device comes at a cost, with an estimated price tag of £10,000.

But while these robots are currently reproducing human recipes, artificial intelligence may soon also start to influence the menu itself. Researchers at MIT set a neural network loose on a database of pizza toppings in an effort to discover new winning combinations. The top suggestions were baked by a pizza chef. The best it came up with – an unlikely shrimp, jam and Italian sausage combo – was actually rated quite highly by those who tasted it.

It is much too early to say whether any of this first wave of robo-chefs will thrive in such a demanding and unpredictable environment as the kitchen, but if they do, it could mark a change in our relationship with cookery.

Much like other activities that were once a necessary part of life before they were taken over by a machine, such as woodworking or needlecraft, cooking too could be something people choose to do simply for the sheer pleasure of it.

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